European Packaging Institute (EPI)
Report, News, Notifications - English Edition 2/2006
Significant Increase in Packaging Usage - a Prognosis
The world packaging market is presently growing at a rate of 4.2 % per annum.
This is revealed in a study by the British Packaging Institute PIRA, according
to which the total global turnover is expected to reach US Dollar 556 billion
by the year 2009. The largest share of the world usage is taken by packaging
materials made of paper, cardboard and board. The world usage of these packaging
materials has already reached a value of US Dollar 176 billion.
According to the study plastic packaging materials are expected to reach a
growth rate of 6.5 % in the coming years. The food industry has a high proportion
of the increasing use of plastic packaging. The packaging usage in Asia is growing
disproportionately, at an annual rate of 14.2 % in India alone and 8.2 % in
In Europe the growth region for packaging usage is Eastern Europe. For Poland,
with an annual growth rate for packaging usage of 11 %, a turnover of US Dollar
6 billion is predicted by the year 2009. For Russia the prognosis is for a turnover
in packaging materials of US Dollar 18.5 billion.
Worldwide Evaluation of the Product Information on Packaging
The importance for consumers of information printed on the packaging about
the food products within has been revealed in a worldwide study by the market
survey company AC Nielsen. Within the survey 21,000 consumers were questioned.
It was identified that only 40 % of those questioned were interested in the
nutritional information when purchasing a product for the first time. In Germany
48 % of consumers looked at the fat content and 36 % at the additive content.
In Austria these figures were
46 % and 32 % respectively. Only 18 % of consumers in Europe make any evaluation
of product labelling, 50 % of all Europeans only partially understand the information
on food labelling.
Current Themes in Packaging Development from the Viewpoint of Research in
Progress in packaging research and development at the Swedish Institutes has
been praised in Göteborg's "Svenska Massan". In a report with
the question, "Is the Nordic region developing into a world leading packaging
centre?", the answer appears to be that institutes in Denmark, Finland,
Norway and Sweden are working on research topics that will have great significance
for the further development of packaging. Here the research being carried out
is very application orientated, focussing on new packaging materials and their
manufacturing cost in the interests of reduced packaging prices. At the same
time new technical solutions are assessed for their practicality and usage,
measured against possible improvements in the package handling. Research into
radiofrequency identification (RFID) and traceability is also being carried
out. With all the research the highest consideration is given to the fact that
with globalisation and product storage in non-European countries the demands
on packaging can be expected to constantly rise.
At the Danish Institute for Packaging and Transport Research ( DTI) there is
a special expertise in the areas of packaging and logistics for pharmaceutical
and food products particularly with regard to RFID research. There is already
an RFID Test Centre at the Institute.
At the Swedish Packaging Research Institute (STFI) work is being carried out
on new solutions for the whole added value chain. In addition new packaging
machine systems and packaging/barrier materials are being devised for the market.
Under discussion here are biodegradable materials produced from shrimp shells
as well as from whey, as well as adhesives and glues for nanotechnology. The
Institute devotes special resource to research into fibres and the printing
of packaging materials made of fibres.
The effect on the environment of packaging is the subject of the research by
the Finnish Packaging Association. The association has special Know How in this
area which extends beyond the current life cycle analysis. From their research
can be deduced what very grave effects an insufficient supply of packaging could
have, losses of 5 million Euros per annum in Finland and of 3 billion Euros
in the whole of Europe.
For the Norwegian Packaging Association an important theme is the consequences
and conclusions for packaging development which may arise from trade strategies.
Combined with this is the demand for trademarks and the opportunities offered
by radiofrequency identification ( RFID). The Association has a RFID Centre
for radiofrequency identification research.
New Research Information on the Role of Packaging in Product Quality
The role of packaging in the consumer assessment of product quality of food
stuffs and other consumer items is revealed from test reports which were published
recently by the Berlin based Consumer Test Foundation in their magazine "Test".
The criteria for the tests included the packaging itself and its suitability
for purpose, the product declaration, the ease of handling and the environmental
aspect of the packaging. The expert bodies, which set the standards for the
assessment of product quality, arrived at a figure for frozen gourmet fillet
steak as well as soya sauces of a 20 % share in the role played by packaging
and the declaration in the quality assessment. In both cases this figure was
a 15 % share for the product information displayed on the declaration. With
Mozzarella and Christmas Stollen the same 15 % share of quality perception came
from the declaration. With vacuum packed or protective gas packed pasta products
a 15 % share was credited to the packaging and the declaration, whereby a 10
% share was given to the declaration. With cosmetic products the share for the
declaration was between 5 % (eyeliner) and 10 % (face cream with light protection
factor). In the tests carried out by the German Packaging Institute e.V. for
the purposes of packaging development an overall assessment was established.
From these were assessed a 5 % - 30 % role assumed by the packaging in the perception
of product quality. Against this figure the share of the packaging costs in
relation to the product costs is generally between 0.5 and 10 %
Packaging Forum at the 18th Cadeaux Exhibition
Gift wrapping paper and gift packaging, together with labels and cardboard
packaging as well as a large range of other gift wrap related products, were
exhibited at the 18th Trade Fair for Gifts and
Ideas for Living, the CADEAUX Exhibition, which was held from the 4th - 6th
May 2006 in Leipzig.
At the exhibition were 431 exhibitors from 13 countries. The figure for the
same March 2005 exhibition was 427 exhibitors from 11 countries.
In the discussions which were held among the exhibitors attention was drawn
to the fact that the development of gift wrapping packaging has now grown to
a significant area of packaging design and that the latest developments are
inspiring creative ideas for the packaging of everyday products.
New Scenarios for World Energy Usage up to 2050
The Shell Oil Germany GmbH company presented in a lecture conference at the
New Leipzig Trade Fair Grounds its latest energy usage prognosis for the periods
up to 2025 and 2050. The relevance of the studies which are the basis for the
scenarios, is the fact that world energy consumption has climbed more steeply
in recent years than had been expected from the economic growth rate. In the
years from 2001- 2004 40 % of the increase in oil consumption was due to demand
from the Peoples Republic of China. Even as recently as the mid 1990's there
was talk of a decoupling of the world economy and energy consumption.
The scenarios presented are based on a clear increase in world energy consumption.
The growing energy requirements of several of the larger threshold countries
such as China, India and Brazil are the cause of this above average increase
in demand. It is reckoned that there will be a doubling of the number of cars
in the world by 2030. According to the World Business Council For Sustainable
Development it is to be expected that there will be no fewer than 2 billion
cars with a world population of 9 billion people. By the year 2075 there could
be as many as 10 billion inhabitants in the world.
The assumptions made for the studies include an annual growth rate of 3.5 %
over the next 50 years and an increase in per capita income to more than US
Dollar 20,000 per annum. A particular problem is that the opening up of new
energy reserves is expected to slow down, but that the energy requirements by
2050 are predicted to double or treble over the present energy needs.
Even in the near future it will be necessary to fall back to an ever growing
degree on natural gas as an energy provider. It is expected that by 2050 up
to 50 % of the primary energy consumption will be covered by renewable energy
The next international Trade Exhibition for Environmental Technology and Environmental
Services, TerraTec 2007, will take place in Leipzig from 5th - 8th March 2007.
Among the six exhibition areas are included: waste refuse, renewable raw materials
and biogenic residues, exhibits in the fields of surveying, planning and inspection.
The focus of the exhibition will, among other things, be the transfer of knowledge
and technology from Western to Eastern Europe as well as questions relating
to waste disposal and recycling, biological processes, and the product characteristics
of waste and in addition the results of research and development programmes
and future cooperation .
New Directives of the European Union
New European legal directives applying to the manufacture, conversion and use
of packaging materials and components, are in force since January 1st 2006.
They relate to microbiological criteria as well as to the prevention of harmful
substances coming into contact with food products.
Prominent among these are the denoted Directives as "Hygiene package"
which have come into effect with the EU Regulation No. 2074/2005 and which apply
specifically to food hygiene, animal welfare and the supervision of animal products
destined for human consumption. The regulations also cover the requirements
for fish products as well as the recognised test methods for tracing marine
toxins and extend as far as the requirements for the calcium content of mechanically
rendered meat products. The "Hygiene Package" was passed into law
on 5th December 2005 ( see ABI. L338 of 22.12.2005, p.27)
Significant is also the latest regulation about the microbiological criteria
for foodstuffs: the EU regulation No. 2073/2005 (see ABI. L338 of 22.12.2005,
p.1). This Directive replaces a regulation passed in 2004, EU regulation No.
852/2004, and sets down the minimum requirements for microbiological condition.
In the Directives the standards are laid down which have to be observed for
all meat, dairy, and egg products as well as fruit and vegetables. The importance
of monitoring process hygiene on the basis of these criteria derives from the
fact that pathogenic organisms are a frequent cause of food poisoning. Packaging
materials are possible carriers of such organisms.
EU regulation No. 1895/2005 seeks to prevent the transfer of Epoxybonds in
significant quantities into preserved foodstuffs. The legally binding Directive
as of 1st January 2006 recognises the fact that Epoxyphenol-Resin-Lacquers are
used as internal coatings on tin cans and that these resins, in a reaction with
chlorine as it is released from PVC, can become the cause of hydroxyderivatives,
a potentially toxic substance. In the meantime research by the European Authority
for Food Standards
(EBLS) has established that the cancerous and gene toxic effect is not as significant
as was assumed and that a daily intake of 0.15 milligrammes per kilo of bodyweight
can be tolerated. It is for this reason that in the latest regulation a maximum
value of 9 milligrammes per kilo of product weight is set as the maximum permissible
Standardisation of the Health Related Information on Foodstuffs Packaging
In conjunction with the aims of the EU Commission to establish a Health Claims
regulation there are discussions at the present time about the standardisation
of health related information given on foodstuff packaging and in food advertising.
According to a report in the magazine "Food in Focus" the information
will be based on a listing of all the permissible statements. Similarly there
will be the establishment of a list of all the statements which are not allowed.
In the evaluation of all the statements and information which are not permitted
to be false or misleading, the current state of scientific knowledge will be
taken as the basis, and the European Authority for Food Safety will be tasked
to check what is recognised as scientific fact. In order to prevent consumers
being misled a system of pictures, symbols and graphics will be used in the
representation of the product information.
Dictionary of Packaging , German, English, French, Italian, Spanish, Russian,
by Erich Krae-mer, 3rd revised Edition, 2005, 1032 pages, hardcover, Euro 178.00,
published by Huethig Press Heidelberg.
In business and industry packaging often forms part of contracts and agreements.
A specialised dictionary for the packaging industry is therefore not only of
great use in information exchange between different countries but also for agreements
within international trading arrangements - particularly in the light of developments
over the past 20 years. In both these last two decades countless new and further
developed packaging materials and components have been used for the manufacture
of packaging materials. At the same time new packaging methods have been developed
and new designations for existing methods and materials introduced. There has
been progress also in the development of new norms in the packaging area, both
at European level with EN as well as at international level with ISO Norms.
These are significant grounds for a new edition of the specialist Dictionary
of Packaging of which the first edition was published in 1968 and the second
The author responsible for this work is Erich Kraemer who for many years was
active in leading roles in the packaging industry as well as in the packaging
rationalisation community of the RKW and in the work of packaging norms. In
the dictionary are included, in addition to the basic vocabulary and important
packaging terms, the designation of packaging materials, methods and means,
as well as those frequently used terms and expressions which do not belong to
the packaging vocabulary. The largest section of the technical words in the
dictionary, which goes from A to Z, is devoted to packaging materials and methods.
Point for Point. The Dual System from A to Z. Publisher: The Green Dot, Dual
System Germany AG. Cologne 2005.
With only 38 pages this booklet is - as the subtitle suggests - an alphabetical
reference book for the use of dual systems for the disposal of used packaging
materials. Those organisations and arrangements as well as procedures and provisions
which are important for dual systems are included. The key words start with
the filler - in the context of the dual system this is the manufacturer of the
consumer product who uses the Green Dot for his products - and run right through
to the contractual agreements for the use of the Green Dot. All the conventional
packaging materials such as aluminium, drinks packaging, cardboard, plastics,
paper, board, PET , laminated packaging materials and tinplate are represented
and featured with articles. Detailed information is given about the Dual System
Germany as well as on EU Packaging guidelines, plastic film conversion and the
handbook of German packaging regulations.
New Address of the German Packaging Institute e.V.
The joint Office of the German Packaging Institute e.V. (dvi) and of the Association
of German Packaging Engineers (bdvi) has moved to a new address in Berlin. The
new address is as follows:
Kunzendorfstr. 19, D-14165 Berlin.
The new telephone and fax numbers are as follows:
Tel: +49 (0) 30 8049858-0
Fax: +49 (0) 30 8049858-18
The e-mail address remains as before: email@example.com
The website remains http://www.verpackung.org